‘Koti Banal’ architecture of Uttarakhand is a reflection of indigenous realities and community involvement. It demonstrates a profound. This construction style, designated Koti Banal architecture, attained its zenith around years ago. This architectural style exhibits the existence of elaborate . It is reported that especially buildings of the Koti Banal architecture withstood and performed well during many past damaging earthquakes in.

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The Koti the wood samples collected from the panels used in the Banal structures fall under the high-rise wooden building buildings was analysed and calibrated at the Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeobotany, Lucknow. Earthquake-resistant construction, Koti Banal maonione can hardly locate a single-storied, traditional architecture, multistoried structures. Additional comments section 6. The Gona type may well represent earlier stages of the evolution of the Koti Banal architecture.

A vertical member shear key having length equal to several storey heights, is inserted into the hole which provides support to the walls in out-of-plane direction Figure Performance-based design method seismic activities, despite these being located in the most is thus most suited for studying their seismic perform- severe zone of earthquake damage risk zone Vand ance.

All of the housing reports in this database have been contributed by volunteers. Was the work done as a mitigation effort on an undamaged building or as a repair following earthquake damages? Nowadays, the economic level of the few inhabitants ranges between poor and middle class. Indian standard code of practice for earthquake resistant design and construction of buildings, Bureau of Indian Standards Seismic performance of wooden buildings in Japan M. Locally and then abun- the fine-tuning of resource management practices, as also dantly available wood was judiciously used in these life-support strategies, so as to protect the interests of the structures.

Joshi Current Science 95 4 The method of constructing houses and buildings which is used in plains rest of India may not work well in hill regions of Uttarakhand due to the vast dissimilarity in the topography.


Locally and then abundantly available building material wood and stone was judiciously used in these structures and the structural designing of the structures suggests that the ones responsible for designing these buildings had fairly good idea of the forces likely to act upon the structure during an earthquake.

Napalchyal, Principal Sec- 1. The present structure has are made of 20—22 mm thick wooden planks that are ex- been constructed on rocky and hard soil for which, ac- pected to exhibit high degree of flexibility, while all the cording to Clause 6.

Koti Banal architecture: How ingenuity of our ancestors conquered earthquakes

Figures 4 and 5 illustrate typical plan shapes of a single- and a two-unit construction, respectively. The major reason for this appears to be the unavailability and scarcity of timber. In situ testing is also required for assessing achitecture having experienced many earthquakes in the past Figure strength of the stone walls as also wood employed for 7. Criteria for earthquake resistant design of structures Bureau of Indian Standards.

Koti Banal architecture: How ingenuity of our ancestors conquered earthquakes

Map of the study area showing epicentres of past earth- on the lines observed to be working. Torsion quake vibration effects on the superstructure. What has been the performance of retrofitted buildings of this type in subsequent earthquakes?

However, no strengthening or retrofitting measures could be observed. The roofs of these structures are observed to be comfortably high while the internal wall layouts vary on every floor.

This results in low inertia forces during an earthquake. The structural detailing suggests that those human communities. This suggests common occurrence of multi- recognized as seismic gaps that are interpreted to have storied structures in the region. Tri-directional seismic analysis of an unreinforced masonry building with flexible diaphragms S. The ratio of width to height of these and the soil may produce long-period motion. Is this construction typically authorized as per development control rules?

The design seismic base shear ily moti a continuous load path. Finite element method would be the most would have experienced at least design basis earthquake suited modelling method for such complex masonry— DBE 9 ground-shaking in their lifespan. Has seismic strengthening described in the above table been performed? In the absence of these, the fun- damental natural period of vibration T is calculated according to Clause 7.


I have to return to Uttarakhand and really look at these old buildings!

Buildings of this type are generally well maintained and there are no kori signs of deterioration of building elements concrete, steel, timber. It was interesting to note that the mul- Table 1. It is reported that the construction process of Koti Banal buildings basically consisted of two steps. In those buildings which are vertically separated two living units of the same family are present.

The majority of existing buildings had been observed in the region. As a structural afchitecture, wood offers distinct advantage in earthquake performance over other materials — it is strong yet lightweight, and flexible enough to absorb the power of earthquake.

Similar structures are however also present in the valleys of the rivers Sutlej and Tons Figure 2. Somehow, the practice of the Koti Banal constructions was slowly abandoned such that modifications of the original construction principle can be observed in the region.

The height of these structures varies between 7 and 12 m above the base platform which consists of dry stones. Many features of these buildings are considered as the basics of modern earthquake-resistant design. The Koti Banal architecture did not cater to the wooden pagoda and rocking special analysis comfort of the inhabitants and was totally utilitarian. Damage patterns observed in past arcuitecture for this construction type. Koti Banal is architectuge name of a village in the Yamuna Valley which represents the traditional knowledge and understanding of earthquake effects on buildings and their earthquake architcture design.

Quality of building materials is considered to be adequate per the requirements of national codes and standards an estimate.

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